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Application Gallery

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CMOS Image Sensors

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As CMOS image sensor pixels sizes shrink to pixel diameters of 1 micron and below, there has been continued research into overcoming technical challenges related to the production of images of sufficient quality, color depth and resolution sufficient for demanding consumer and commercial applications. With the goal of producing CMOS imagers capable of capturing an incident light signal, and efficiently propagating that signal through sophisticated multilayer structures manufactured with CMOS fabrication processes, rigorous optical and electrical simulations that account for absorption, scattering, and diffraction from sub-wavelength features (like metallic interconnects for the readout electronics, or the curved dielectric surfaces of which the microlens array is constructed) as well as steady state and transient electrical behavior of the sensor are required.

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Features

Whitepaper: Optoelectronic modeling of photosensitive CHARGEs

 

Build complex, 3D geometries of CMOS image sensors including microlenses with parameterized design primitives and GDSII import of structures

Generate highly-accurate material models over the entire solar spectrum using Lumerical's proprietary multi-coefficient materials

Accurately model semiconductor materials accounting for surface and bulk recombination through detailed models. Define your own semiconductor material models, or use predefined models for common semiconductors like silicon.

Obtain accurate broadband results at multiple wavelengths in a single simulation

Simulate unpolarized response

Calculating the point spread function and modulation transfer function, angular response, and photoelectric conversion efficiency.

Import/export near field simulation results to a rayset – either to import a custom source obtained from a raytracing program or model backscatter from the pixel array surface

Perform dark current and noise calculations

Calculate the collection efficiency of electron/hole carriers for arbitrary optical generation spatial profiles, imported from 3D FDTD simulations or other optical simulation tools

Analyze the transient response to a variety of optical exposure conditions.

Optimize the pixels using the build-in parameter sweep and optimization utility

Application examples

Solvers

Description

FDTD

3D CMOS, optical efficiency: Initial simulation

FDTD

2D and 3D Point Spread Function (PSF): Point spread function

FDTD

2D and 3D angular response: Angular response 2D, Angular response 3D

FDTD

Microlens shift for non-normal incidence : Microlens shift

FDTD

Optimal Radius Of Curvature (ROC) of microlens: Optimize microlens ROC

FDTD, DEVICE CT

Optical and electrical cross-talk: Cross talk and QE extraction

DEVICE CT

Dark current noise: Dark current extraction

DEVICE CT

Transient simulation: Transient Simulation

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