Inversely design a silicon-on-insulator waveguide crossing using the built-in parametric optimization module (PO) for FDTD Solutions. Compared to other optimization methods such as particle swarm optimization (PSO), this optimization algorithm based on adjoint method yields the best solution in just a few iterations. The optimal design will then be exported into a GDS file for further simulation and/or fabrication.

Minimum version requirement: 2019a r5

Licenses: FDTD Solutions, Automation API

Updating the model with your parameters

Appendix: Parametric Optimization (Adjoint method)

Understand the simulation workflow and key results

Lumerical's inverse design capability provides unparalleled optimization performance by combining the power of gradient based optimization routine with efficiencies found in fundamental properties of Maxwell equations.

This example will demonstrate how to use the inverse design method to generate a crossing shape that delivers near perfect transmission efficiency. Moreover, we'll demonstrate how to modify the example with your parameters so you can reuse this approach for your own design.

The goal for this initial step is to define the basic parameters of the FDTD simulation that will be used for the adjoint optimization. Here, key simulation settings for the crossing waveguides, monitors for field gradient and figure of merit (FOM) calculations, source and mesh are parametrized for ease of running the optimization routine. It is required that the base simulation setup is fully scripted in lumerical script (.lsf format). The script is later used as an input to the optimization routine.

The second step is to define a parametrized polygon geometry that will represent the body of the crossing connecting the input and output waveguides (the optimizable geometry). This is defined as a python function that accepts a set of optimization parameters and generates corresponding polygon geometry appended to the base FDTD simulation geometry defined in step 1. Initial parameter values and their limits will also get defined in this step.

Run the python script with the base simulation script and parametrized polygon object as an input. This will be a 2D simulation for fast delivery of a near optimal design which can be used as the initial guess for the 3D optimization in the next step. To find the best set of parameters that define the optimal crossing shape, the optimization routine will use the specified field monitors in the base simulation to calculate:

•The field gradients: the gradients of the field due to perturbation of permittivity resulting from slight changes in geometry of the optimizable region

•The gradient of the figure of merit (FOM): the gradient of the mode overlap to the fundamental TE mode of the waveguides as a result of the shape changes

After optimization, the optimized crossing component shape will be exported into GDS II format which can be used for further simulation and/or fabrication (mask design).

As an optional step, the best solution found by the 2D optimization can be used as an initial guess for a 3D optimization for a more realistic simulation and to further improve the performance of the design.

Instructions for running the model and discussion of key results

This step is not necessary if you want to run the example as is, however it is required for modification of base simulation parameters based on your needs.

1.Open the base simulation script file (crossing_base_TE_modematch_2D.lsf) in FDTD solutions

2.Modify the desired base simulation parameters

3.Save and run the script file to make sure the base simulation is setup as intended and the script runs successfully. This is just a sanity check and the generated simulation is not required to be saved for the next step

The resulting base simulation which includes the FDTD simulation region, source, monitors, mesh override for optimizable geometry, and input and output waveguides is shown in the figure below.

This step is not necessary if you want to run the example as is, however it is required for modification of base simulation parameters based on your needs.

1.Open the parametric optimization python script file (crossing_opt_2D.py) in FDTD Solutions script editor

2.Define the initial values of the input parameters of the optimization (the Y coordinates of the nodes of the optimizable polygon) through the array initial_params

3.Define the bounds of the optimization parameters within the array bounds

4.Make any other necessary modifications to the optimization parameters. See “Important model settings” for more information about these parameters

5.Save the script

Below is a screenshot of the optimization python script within the script editor window in FDTD Solutions

1.Before running the optimization, make sure the current working directory for FDTD Solutions is set to the location where the example files are located

2.Run the optimization script file from the script editor in FDTD Solutions

The geometry of the crossing at the start of the optimization with default parameters is shown in the figure below:

A command prompt (in windows operating system) or terminal (in macOS or Linux) window will open showing the progress of the optimization. A screenshot of the command prompt window at the end of the optimization is shown below which contains information about the optimization progress

During the optimization, various sessions of FDTD Solutions will get opened and closed by optimization routine to perform simulations on the guesses made by the optimization algorithm. Another window will also report the optimization progress providing various plots for evolution of the optimization geometry, figure of merit, parameters and other related information. The figure below shows the optimization report window at the end of optimization process.

From the plot, it can be seen that the optimization started with an initial design providing an FOM of ~0.75 and ended up with a geometry with a FOM of about 0.97, resulting in about 28 % improvement through the optimization process in just a few iterations which highlights the advantage of this method compared to other optimization algorithms such as particle swarm which need many iterations to achieve an optimum solution. Also, note that FOM will have little improvement after about 3 iterations which suggests higher number of iterations probably won't achieve a significant improvement. The field gradients (due to the changes in geometry) and forward direction field distributions within the device’s structure can also be seen in the plot. In addition, the changes in the optimizable parameter values become less noticeable after a few iterations as the FOM gets closer to the optimum value. The changes in FOM gradient (based on changes in the parameter values) also decrease on average as seen in gradient evolution plot as a function of the iterations.

At the end of optimization, the final parameter values will be saved in a text file (2D_parameters.txt) in the same folder as the example files which will be used in the 3D optimization for the next step. In addition, copies of the simulation files for each iteration, a text file containing the history of parameters and FOM values for each iteration and still images of the optimization report window for each iteration will be saved in a folder (with a name starting with “opts”) in the same folder as example files for future reference. Each optimization run creates a new folder with the same name but a numbered suffix to avoid overwriting previous runs data.

Here is the final geometry optimized in 2D:

The optimization python script file will also export the optimal design to a GDS file at the end of optimization. The GDS file will be saved in the same folder as the example files. The example files come with a few encrypted script files with .lsfx extension which are needed for the GDS export operation. They should be saved in the same location as the python script file.

1.Before running the optimization, make sure the current working directory for FDTD Solutions is set to the location where the example files are located

2.Make sure the base simulation script file (crossing_base_TE_modematch_3D.lsf) is setup correctly

3.Open and run the optimization python script file (crossing_opt_3D.py) in FDTD Solutions script editor. This script will read the final parameters from the 2D optimization (stored in 2D_parameters.txt) if available. Otherwise, it will start with default values set in the script.

Note that the 3D optimization might take a long time to complete due to the large size of the simulation.

Looking at the results of the 3D optimization will reveal that the crossing’s transmission has been initially predicted to be about 82% by 3D simulation (which is more realistic than the 2D case) and has been improved to 91% at the end of optimization. It can be seen that the FOM does not improve significantly after 6 iterations suggesting that running a longer optimization may not result in much better performance.

Description of important objects and settings used in this model

Definition of optimizable geometry: The optimizable geometry is defined as a polygon which has fixed values for the x coordinates of its boundary points and the points’ y coordinates can be modified to obtain the optimal geometry. These y coordinates are defined as the nodes of a cubic spline (as shown below), which makes it possible to perform cubic spline interpolation on the points in order to obtain a smooth polygon geometry. For the waveguide crossing, this optimizable polygon needs to be mirrored rotationally in order to form a complete crossing, meaning that only 1/8 of the optimizable geometry is independently parametrized. It is important to make sure that the dimensions of the optimizable geometry and the waveguides set in the base simulation match so that the crossing geometry is properly formed.

Optimization fields monitor: The optimization fields DFT monitor (opt_field) is used to collect the field data within the optimizable geometry which is then used to calculate field gradients used in optimization algorithm. As such, the location of this monitor is of great importance and should cover the entire optimizable geometry.

Figure of merit fields monitor: Since this monitor is used to calculate the figure of merit required for optimization (mode overlap to the fundamental TE mode of the output waveguide), it should be located within the output waveguide of the crossing with appropriate dimensions.

Height of the geometry objects: The height (depth) of the geometry objects should match in both base simulation (waveguides) and the optimizable geometry (polygon). This is especially important for the 3D simulation to ensure correct geometry setup. For the waveguides, this is set through the base simulation setup script (by setting their z span) and for the polygon, it is adjusted as the input argument “depth” when calling the cross function to form the optimizable geometry. This value should also be passed to the GDS export portion of the script as shown below (highlighted in red):

######## SAVE THE OPTIMIZED STRUCTURE INTO GDS ########

#Define gds export parameters in Lumerical script format

gds_export_script = "\

gds_filename = 'crossing_2D.gds';\

top_cell = 'model';\

layer_def = [1, 0, 0.22e-6];\

n_circle = 64;\

n_ring = 64;\

n_custom = 64;\

n_wg = 64;\

round_to_nm = 1;\

grid = 1e-9;\

Lumerical_GDS_auto_export;\

"

#Build the structure in FDTD and export it into GDS

with lumapi.FDTD(hide=True) as fdtd:

fdtd.cd(example_directory)

fdtd.eval(crossing_base)

fdtd.addpoly(vertices=cross(results[1]*1e-6))

fdtd.set("z span",0.22e-6)

fdtd.eval(gds_export_script)

Optimization parameters bounds and initial values: The range over which the optimization algorithm is allowed to vary the parameters and also the initial values for those parameters as a starting point are defined by initial_params and bounds arrays as input arguments when calling the function FunctionDefinedPolygon

Optimization spectral range: The spectral range of the optimization can be specified as the array “wavelengths” as well as the number of frequency points considered in optimization. Note that choosing a large number of frequency points will make the optimization much slower and can cause issues when transferring large amount of data between FDTD and python environment. It is recommended to keep this number as low as possible especially for 3D simulations. For a single frequency optimization, simply choose the same start and stop values with points set to 1.

Maximum number of iterations: While the algorithm has the capability to stop the optimization once the gradient of the figure of merit falls below a certain threshold, the “max_iter” variable used for defining the optimization algorithm can be used to limit the number of iterations the algorithm is able to perform.

Target FOM: The target values for FOM at different wavelengths can be specified with target_T_fwd input argument when defining the FOM. This should be an array with the same length as wavelength data and contain target FOM values (forward transmission) for each wavelength which can be less than 1. The default is 1 for all wavelengths. This gives users the option to aim for a desired value of transmission within the design spectral range.

Instructions for updating the model based on your device parameters

Geometry: If you need to have your own geometry defined for the crossing, including SOI device layer thickness (waveguide height) and waveguide width, corresponding changes should be made in base simulation setup script and/or optimization setup python script. This might need changes in objects span and location in the base script, the polygon’s “depth” parameter in python script which its value is also passed to the GDS export portion of the script. The source, simulation region, mesh override, and field gradient and fom monitors dimensions should also be adjusted accordingly to make sure they cover the entire structure properly. The coordinates of the initial values and bounds of the optimizable geometry at points where it is connected to the waveguide might need to be adjusted to ensure proper connection between the optimizable region and the waveguides. It is recommended to set the coordinates such that there is a slight overlap between the optimizable region and the edges of the waveguides to ensure they are connected in the simulation.

Materials: The permittivity of the materials included in the simulation (the material making the optimizable geometry (core) and the material surrounding it (cladding)) for the desired simulation wavelength should be passed to the optimizer when defining the geometry by calling the function FunctionDefinedPolygon (here they are presented as refractive index (n) squared). The refractive index (not permittivity) of the waveguides (which is the same as the optimizable geometry) should also be defined in the base simulation setup script.

Additional documentation, examples and training material

•Inverse design of Y-branch (PO)

•Y Branch S parameter extraction

•KX posts with tips and related content

Additional background information and theory

In a typical device optimization, the goal is to minimize or maximize a figure or merit \( F(p) \) that depends on a set of \( N \) design parameters \( p=(p_1,...,p_n) \). The figure of merit can be any quantity used to benchmark the device’s performance and the design parameters can be any quantity that alters the device’s response. To evaluate \( F(p) \) for a given set of values of \( p \), a physics based modeling tool - such as FDTD - is used to map values of \( p \) to values of \( F \). The model usually contains a description of the device’s geometry, materials and all relevant environmental conditions. In a parameterized shape optimization, the goal is to allow some parts of the device’s geometry to vary to minimize or maximize the figure of merit. For this purpose, a shape function \( f(p) \) is typically defined to specify part of the device’s geometry; an example is shown in the following figure:

The shape function is typically user defined and must be fed to the modelling tool to construct the device’s geometry. Once the figure of merit \( F(f(p)) \) can be evaluated for a given shape function, a minimizer can make multiple evaluations of the figure of merit to find the optimal shape. There is a very large body of minimization tools and techniques that can be used to try to find the optimal shape parameters. When selecting a minimization technique, it is important to consider that running a device simulation to evaluate the figure of merit can be a slow operation. So, the best suited minimization techniques are those that limit the number of evaluations of the figure of merit. With a good starting point, gradient based methods can quickly find the optimal parameters with a relatively small number of figure of merit evaluations provided that it is also possible to evaluate the gradient of the figure of merit:

$$∇_pF=(\frac{\partial F}{\partial p_1},⋯,\frac{\partial F}{\partial p_n})$$

To evaluate the gradient without having to perform one simulation for each partial derivative, a technique called the adjoint method can be employed. This technique exploits the properties of linear partial differential equations to evaluate the gradient using only two simulations independently of the number of optimization parameters. The Python based shape optimization module in FDTD (lumopt) allows users to define a shape function and run the corresponding device simulation to evaluate the figure of merit. The module also implements the adjoint method to provide the gradient. In this way, any of the gradient based minimizers in SciPy’s optimize module can be used to perform a fully automated optimization.