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Application Gallery

This page contains 3 sections. The simulation can be set up from a new simulation, starting at the Set up model section. Otherwise the associated files (which you can find at the locations given on the first page of the tutorial) can be used to start at the second section.


Set up model

Start a new INTERCONNECT project. You can start a new project by pressing Ctrl+N, or by selecting New in the File menu.

From the Element Library, drag and drop two optical mirrors (Element Library\Passives\Optical) and a straight waveguide (Element Library\Waveguides) to the schematic editor, then connect the elements as shown below:


Select the first optical mirror, and under the Properties window, set the property "reflectivity" to 0.5. Repeat the same step for the second mirror and flip the second mirror using the flip button on the toolbar.

The straight waveguide element supports two modes, and the two orthogonal identifiers are used to track them (labeled "TE" and "TM"). Focusing on the "TE" mode only, set the "effective index 1" and "group index 1" values to 2.8, and the property "length" to 10 microns.

You can annotate any property in the schematic editor by enabling the annotate flag. You can also select the unit for properties such as the waveguide length:



Now that we have created the Fabry-Perot resonator circuit, we can proceed to study its frequency domain response. To do this, add the Optical Network Analyzer from the Element Library (Element Library\Analyzers\Optical) to the circuit. The Optical Network Analyzer uses Scattering Data Analysis to determine the response of the system as a function of frequency/wavelength. By default, the analyzer has one optical output and one optical input, and they should be connected to the input and output ports (where you want to measure the response) of the circuit. To measure the frequency response at different locations of the circuit, the user can increase the number of input ports to the analyzer. In this example, we will measure the response for both the transmission and reflection of the resonator (s11 and s21).

Set the properties of the optical network analyzer according to the following table.





number of input ports


We want to look at the output from both the transmission and reflection. Setting the number of input ports to 2 allows us to measure the response at two different points in the circuit.

number of points


The number of frequency points in the specified frequency range. We want to make sure that the resolution is fine enough to resolve all the peaks in the response.

frequency range

5e+13 (Hz)

The frequency range of the analysis, for a FSR of 5.35 THz this range will allow for the analysis of multiple resonant peaks.


Connect the analyzer to the resonator circuit as shown below. Note here that the input 1/input 2 ports of the analyzer are connected to the reflection/transmission outputs of the Fabry-Perot resonator respectively.



Run Simulation, Visualize Results

To run the simulation, click on the Run button ref_schematic_layout_editor_run on the tool bar. When a simulation is running, the calculation progress will appear at the top of the analyzer.


When the simulation finishes running, the Results Window of the Optical Network Analyzer will be populated with results. Users can simply right-click on each result to visualize this in the Visualizer window. For example, to look at the transmission, right-click on the "input 1/mode 1/transmission" result and select "Visualize". Simple scalar operations can be selected via the options in the "Scalar operations" column of the Visualizer.




Fabry-Perot Resonator Element

In this section, we will repeat the same analysis by directly using a Fabry-Perot resonator element provided by INTERCONNECT (instead of constructing it in sections using waveguides and mirrors).

Add a "Fabry-Perot Resonator" element from the Element Library (Element Library\Waveguides\Resonators). Set the properties according to the following table:






10e-6 (m)

The overall length of the resonator.



The mirror reflectivity.

effective index 1


The waveguide effective index for the first mode (labeled TE).

group index 1


The waveguide group index for the first mode (labeled TE).


Make a copy of the Optical Network Analyzer from Part I and connect it to the Fabry-Perot Resonator as follows:


Repeat Part II and verify that the results are the same as the set up in Part I.

Since Part I and Part III of this example models the same ring resonator device, the results should be identical between the two setups.

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