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Application Gallery

This page contains two sections. The simulation can be set up as a new simulation (blank project file), starting at the "Set up Model" section below. Otherwise, the associated files (located on the first page of the tutorial) can be used to start at the "Run Simulation, Visualize Results" section.

Set up Model

Open a blank INTERCONNECT simulation file.  Add the following components.


Straight Waveguide 1

From the Elements Library, add a "Straight Waveguide" gs_ring_straight_waveguide_zoom56 (from the "Waveguides" folder) by dragging the element into the design editor's viewport. Under the Property View window, you can see the properties that define this waveguide element. Change the name of the element to "Straight Waveguide 1" by double-clicking on the corresponding "Value" field.  


As shown on the first page of the tutorial, the ring portion of the resonator is going to be modeled using two straight waveguides.  The radius of the ring is 40 micron which means the length of each of the waveguides should be set as pi x 40 micron or 125.664 micron.  This can be set up by setting the value of "length" to 125.664e-6 (m) in the property view window.  Alternatively, we can first set the "Unit" for the "length" property to micron and then set the value to 125.664.  A third option to set the length would be to use the "Expression" option and set it's value to pi*40e-6 (Unit = 'm').  The three options are shown in the screenshots below.


Setting length in units of m

Setting length in units of m

Setting length in units of micron

Setting length in units of micron

Setting length using "Expression" (unit set to 'm')

Setting length using "Expression" (unit set to 'm')


Under the "Waveguide" section in the property view window there are two modes "Mode 1" and "Mode 2" with orthogonal identifier values of 1 and 2, respectively.  By default they model the two orthogonal modes (labeled "TE", "TM") of the waveguide. We will set the properties for the two modes as follows:




effective index 1


group index 1


effective index 2


group index 2



Waveguide Coupler 1

From the Elements Library, add a "Waveguide Coupler" element gs_ring_coupler_zoom56 (from the "Couplers" sub-folder under the "Waveguides" folder).  Set the name to "Waveguide Coupler1". Note that the "input parameter" property allows the user to choose between specifying the "coupling coefficient" or "cross over length" for the coupler.  Set the value of  "input parameter" to "coupling coefficient".  Set the coupling coefficients for both the TE and TM mode as follows:




coupling coefficient 1


coupling coefficient 2



Straight Waveguide 2, Waveguide Coupler 2

Use the COPY button ref_circuits_copy to make one copy of the straight waveguide and waveguide coupler. Note that the properties of the copied elements are identical to the existing ones.  Name the waveguide "Straight Waveguide 2" and the coupler "Waveguide Coupler 2".


Connect the ring

Connect the four elements as follows (via the bidirectional, optical ports). You can use the Rotate button ref_circuits_rotate to rotate the straight waveguides. You can also enable/disable any annotation in the Property View window.



Hangover waveguides

Next we will add the hangover waveguides to the ring resonator.  We will start by placing one Straight Waveguide from the Element Library and set the property values as follows:





Hangover Waveguide 1


40 micron

effective index 1


group index 1


effective index 2


group index 2



Create three copies of "Hangover Waveguide 1" and name them "Hangover Waveguide 2", "Hangover Waveguide 3", and "Hangover Waveguide 4".  Connect the waveguides to the ring as follows:


Optical Network Analyzer (ONA)

Now that we have created the ring resonator circuit, we can proceed to study its frequency domain response. To do this, add an Optical Network Analyzer gs_ring_network_analyzer_zoom56 from the "Analyzers" folder of the Element Library. The Optical Network Analyzer uses Scattering Data Analysis to determine the response of the system as a function of frequency/wavelength. By default, the analyzer has one optical output and one optical input, and they should be connected to the input and output ports (where you want to measure the response) of the circuit. To measure the frequency response at different locations of the circuit, the user can increase the number of input ports to the analyzer. In this example, we will measure the response for both the "drop" and "through" channels.  Set the properties of the optical network analyzer according to the following table.





number of input ports


We want to look at the output from both the "drop" and "through" channels. Setting the number of input ports to 2 allows us to measure the response at two different points in the circuit.

frequency range

1600 GHz

We have increased the frequency rage from the default value to ensure that we can capture multiple resonances in the transmission of the ring.

number of points


The number of frequency points in the specified frequency range. We want to make sure that the resolution is fine enough to resolve all the peaks in the response.

orthogonal identifier


This determines which mode to analyze. Setting this to "1" will excite the mode corresponding to orthogonal identifier 1 of the element the output port is connected to (i.e. the TE mode in this example).


Connect the analyzer to the ring resonator circuit as shown below. Note here that the input 1/input 2 ports of the analyzer are connected to the through/drop channels of the ring resonator respectively.



Run Simulation, Visualize Results

To run the simulation, click on the Run button ref_circuits_run on the tool bar. When a simulation is running, a progress bar will appear at the top of the analyzer.



When the simulation finishes running, the Result View window of the Optical Network Analyzer will be populated with results. Users can simply right-click on each result to visualize this in the Visualizer window. For example, to look at the transmission through the drop channel, right-click on the "TE transmission"result for "input 1" and select "Visualize".  Simple scalar operations can be selected via the options in the "Scalar operations" column of the Visualizer.


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