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Application Gallery

The combination of FDTD Solutions and MODE Solutions provides users with a versatile and comprehensive design environment suitable for all passive components such as waveguides, fibers, couplers and tapers.




The 3D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solver in FDTD is one of the most versatile and rigorous methods for simulating light interaction with nanoscale components. However, when applied to three-dimensional structures, FDTD is highly computationally intensive, making it difficult to treat large integrated optical components efficiently.


MODE provide several alternative methods for simulating wave propagation over large distances. The 2.5D variational FDTD (varFDTD) solver and the eigenmode expansion (EME) solver can simulate how waveguide modes propagate along longitudinally-varying waveguide geometries over long distances. For planar geometries where there is negligible coupling between vertical modes, varFDTD can achieve accuracy comparable to 3D FDTD with computation times comparable to 2D FDTD. For 3D geometries where there is coupling between vertical modes, EME is a frequency domain method that offers a good alternative to 3D FDTD because its computational requirements scale exceptionally well with distance.


Both FDTD and MODE have built-in finite-difference eigenmode (FDE) solver, which can be used for modal analysis of waveguides and fiber cross-sections of arbitrary cross section.


Users have the ability to streamline their design process by being able to select and run different solvers using the same CAD environment, geometry and analysis tools.  For example, the design of a ring resonator can be quickly optimized using varFDTD, with final verification and S parameters extraction done in a full 3D FDTD simulation. Or, the design of a polarization converter can start with modal analysis and follow up with propagation using the 2D or 3D EME solver.



Waveguides and passive routing elements including splitters, mode converters and crossovers

Input/output couplers based on grating couplers

Resonators analysis with integrated Q-factor Analysis Object for low- and high-Q resonator structures including, for example, ring resonators

3D photonic-crystal cavities, photonic crystal waveguide, and photonic crystal bandstructure

Plasmonic waveguides



Waveguide structure design including, for example, effective index, dispersion, group index, and propagation loss for straight and bent waveguides

Coupling efficiency between different waveguide sections using the built-in overlap calculator

Optimize large planar waveguide geometries quickly and efficiently using the 2.5D variational FDTD solver

Optimize long passive devices such as tapers, Bragg gratings and MMI couplers efficiently using the eigenmode expansion solver

Plasmonic waveguides and components arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs)



Finite-difference Eigenmode solver automatically calculates the physical properties of guided modes, including the mode profiles, effective index, propagation constant, propagation loss, dispersion, bending loss, group velocity, group dispersion

Passive S parameters can be easily extracted to be used in a circuit-level simulation in INTERCONNECT.

Lumerical’s conformal mesh technology can provide sub-mesh cell modeling accuracy.

Multi-Coefficient Materials (MCMs) can accurately model dispersive materials across wide wavelength ranges

Built-in parameter sweep and optimization algorithms make it easy to analyze and optimize parameterized designs

Application examples




Grating couplers


Waveguide couplers






Polarization control




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